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1. Which ONE of the following is TRUE?
a) Glaucoma is diagnosed when a
patient’s intraocular pressure is above
b) For every 1mmHg decrease in
intraocular pressure there is a 10%
reduced risk of glaucoma.
c) Approximately 50% of Australians with
glaucoma are not diagnosed.
d) Patients without treatment for
glaucoma are likely to become blind
after 35 years compared to 23 years in
a patient with treatment.
2. Which ONE of the following is
a) Patients always prefer morning
dosing of travoprost than evening
b) It is acceptable for patients to use
latanoprost in the morning.
c) Bimatoprost is no more effective if it is
dosed in the evening.
d) Latanoprost efficacy is reduced if it is
dosed twice daily.
3. Which medicine is considered first-
line treatment in the management
4. Which ONE of the following is NOT a
major risk factor for glaucoma?
a) Increasing age.
b) Ocular hypertension.
c) Asian descent.
d) Lower central corneal thickness.
5. Which of the following is FALSE
a) Xalacom can be administered twice
daily because timolol is as effective
once daily as twice daily.
b) Timolol is more likely to impair
respiratory function than betaxolol.
c) Primary open angle glaucoma is the
most common type of glaucoma
d) The mean age for glaucoma onset is
1. NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council),
Guidelines for the screening, prognosis, diagnosis, managment
and prevention of glaucoma, 2010. At: http://www.nhmrc.
2. Quigley HA. Glaucoma. Lancet. 2011;377(9774):1367–77.
3. Leske MC. Open-angle glaucoma – an epidemiologic
overview. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2007;14(4):166–72.
4. Quigley HA, Broman AT. The number of people with
glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020. Br J Ophthalmol.
5. Access Economics, Tunnel Vision. The economic impact of
open angle glaucoma 2008, Centre for eye research Australia.
6. Heijl A, Leske M, Bengtsson B et al. Reduction of intraocular
pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early
Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(10):1268–
7. Burr JM, Mowatt G, Hernandez R et al. The clinical effectiveness
and cost-effectiveness of screening for open angle glaucoma:
a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol
Assess. 2007;11(41):iii–iv, ix–x, 1–190.
8. SEAGIG (South East Asia Glaucoma Interest Group), Asia Pacific
Glaucoma Guidelines, 2008. At: www.apglaucomasociety.org/
9. Alm A, Camras CB, Watson PG. Phase III latanoprost studies in
Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Surv
Ophthalmol. 1997;41 Suppl 2:S105–10.
10. Xalatan Product Information. 2013 Apr 29, 2013; At: www.
11. Linden C, Alm A. Latanoprost twice daily is less effective than
once daily: indication of receptor subsensitivity? Curr Eye Res.
12. Alm A, Stjernschantz J. Effects on intraocular pressure and
side effects of 0.005% latanoprost applied once daily, evening
or morning. A comparison with timolol. Scandinavian
Latanoprost Study Group. Ophthalmol.1995;102(12):1743–52 .
13. Stewart WC, Konstas A, Nelson L et al. Meta-analysis of 24-
hour intraocular pressure studies evaluating the efficacy of
glaucoma medicines. Ophthalmol. 2008;115(7):1117–1122 e1.
14. Ford BA, Gooi M, Carlsson A et al. Morning dosing of once-
daily glaucoma medication is more convenient and may
lead to greater adherence than evening dosing. J Glaucoma.
15. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Evaluation of adherence to morning
versus evening glaucoma medication dosing regimens. Clin
Ophthalmol. 2007;1(1):79–83 .
16. Passo MS, Palmer EA, Van Buskirk EM. Plasma timolol in
glaucoma patients. Ophthalmol. 1984;91(11):1361–3 .
17. Shell JW. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied ophthalmic
drugs. Surv Ophthalmol. 1982;26(4):207–18.
18. Goldberg I, Goldberg H. Betaxolol eye drops. A clinical trial of
safety and efficacy. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol. 1995;23(1):17–24.
19. Waldock A, Snape J, Graham CM. Effects of glaucoma
medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure
status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol.
20. Soll DB. Evaluation of timolol in chronic open-angle
glaucoma. Once a day vs twice a day. Arch Ophthalmol.
21. Perry C, McGavin J, Culy C et al. Latanoprost : an update of
its use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging.
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