Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist April 2013 Contents Australian Pharmacist April 2013 I © Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
COUNSELLING IN PRACTICE
For those people with health conditions
associated with elevated salt intake
and who are struggling to make
the recommended dietary changes,
seeking the advice of a dietician/
nutritionist may be advisable.
Many consumers are often unaware of the
wide range of foods that contain sodium
and a detailed assessment of their intake
and a diet plan may be valuable.
1. Which ONE of the following
intakes of sodium (Na+) would be
approximately equivalent to 4 g of
‘salt’ per day?
2. Supplemental salt intake may
be a justifiable component of
the management of which ONE
of the following cardiovascular
b) Peripheral arterial disease.
c) Postural hypotension.
d) Atrial fibrillation.
3. Which ONE of the following foods
that may be perceived as ‘healthy’
routinely contains high levels
d) Smoked salmon.
4. Which ONE of the following
statements regarding salt restriction
and effects on blood pressure is
a) Salt restriction only lowers BP in
people who are severely hypertensive.
b) Salt restriction is worthwhile even
amongst people with resistant
c) Reducing salt intake by 3 g/day
typically lowers BP by 20/10 mmHg.
d) People with hypertension should
restrict salt intake to no more than
5. Issues to consider with the recent
study that caused controversy about
salt and health include:
a) lack of reference to hard clinical
b) limited duration of the studies
c) misleading reporting by the lay media.
d) All of the above.
excessive sodium, they should limit their
salt intake to 4 g/day (or less).
Whilst avoidance of adding salt
during cooking or at the dining table
is desirable, the major source of
dietary salt intake for many people is
processed food and that obtained from
take-away and restaurant/cafe foods.
Careful attention to dietary labelling is
essential if salt intake is to be reduced,
and care should be taken to avoid
confusion regarding the target levels for
salt and elemental sodium.
Take home messages
Salt (sodium chloride) is the main source
of sodium in the human diet and under
normal circumstances, the human body
requires only a modest intake of sodium
to maintain essential functions and good
health. Although recent research has
raised some doubts regarding the harms
from sodium, there is overwhelming
evidence that sodium intake is
strongly linked to hypertension and
the consequent risk of cardiovascular
disease, in particular stroke.
Current advice for the general
population is not to exceed a salt
intake of 6 g/day and for those people
with medical conditions worsened by
1. Taylor RS, Ashton KE, Moxham T, Hooper L. Ebrahim S. Reduced
dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a
meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (Cochrane
Review) Am J Hypertens 2011;24(8):843–53.
2. Sacks FM, Campos H. Dietary therapy in hypertension N Engl J
3. Safar ME, Temmar M, Kakou A, Lacolley P, Thornton SN. Sodium
intake and vascular stiffness in hypertension. Hypertension
4. MacGregor GA, de Wardener HE. Salt, diet and health.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
5. He FJ, Burnier M, MacGregor GA. Nutrition in cardiovascular
disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure. European Heart
Journal 2011;32:3073–80 .
6. Strazzullo P, D’Elia L, Kandala N-B, Cappuccio FP. Salt intake,
stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective
studies. BMJ 2009;339:b4567.
7. He FJ, MacGregor GA. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood
pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Implications for
public health. J Hum Hypertens 2002;16:761–70.
8. Myat A, Redwood SR, Qureshi AC, Spertus JA, Williams B.
Resistant hypertension. BMJ 2012;345:e7473.
9. Pimenta E, Gaddam KK, Oparil S, et al. Effects of dietary
sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant
hypertension results from a randomized trial. Hypertension
10. National Heart Foundation of Australia, (National Blood
Pressure and Vascular Disease Advisory Committee). Guide to
management of hypertension 2008. Updated Dec 2010.
11. Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, et al. Projected
effect of dietary salt reductions on future cardiovascular
disease. N Engl J Med 2010;362:590–9 .
12. Kleinewietfeld M, Manzel A, Titze J, et al. Sodium chloride drives
autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17
cells. Nature 2013; published online 06 Mar 2013. At: www.
html (Accessed 07 Mar 2013.)
13. Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T, et al. Induction of pathogenic
TH17 cells by inducible salt-sensing kinase SGK1. Nature 2013;
published online 06 Mar 2013. At: www.nature.com/nature/
journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11984.html (Accessed 07
14. Kotchen TA. To salt, or not to salt? American Journal of
Physiology - Heart 1999;276(5):H1807–H1808.
Links Archive Australian Pharmacist March 2013 Australian Pharmacist May 2013 Navigation Previous Page Next Page