Home' Australian Pharmacist : April 2011 Contents Vol. 30 -- April #04
Continuing Professional Development
The articles in this series are independently researched and compiled by PSA commissioned authors and peer reviewed.
1. Which ONE of the following
types of urinary incontinence
best fits this description:
'involuntary leakage associated
with urgency and also with
exertion, effort, sneezing or
2. All of the following groups
of medications are potential
causes or contributors to
urinary overflow incontinence,
b) calcium channel blockers.
3. Which ONE of the following
treatment options should
generally be used first-line in
urinary urge incontinence?
a) Bladder training.
b) Oxybutynin tablets.
c) Oxybutynin transdermal patch.
4. Duloxetine, although not
currently indicated for
the treatment of urinary
incontinence, has been shown
to be effective in which ONE of
a) Stress incontinence.
b) Urge incontinence.
c) Overflow incontinence.
d) Mixed incontinence.
A score of 4 out of 5 attracts 1 CPD credit.
5. Which ONE of the following
statements regarding pelvic
floor exercises is FALSE?
Pelvic floor exercises:
a) are part of the treatment plan for
b) are first-line treatment for stress or
c) are only effective in women.
d) should be trialled for at least three
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for stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence in Italy.
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12. Peyrat L, Haillot O, Bruyere F, et al. Prevalence and risk
factors of urinary incontinence in young and middle-
aged women. BJU Int. 2002; 89:61--6.
13. Sacco E, Prayer-Galetti T, Pinto F, et al. Urinary
incontinence after radical prostatectomy: incidence by
definition, risk factors and temporal trend in a large
series with a long-term follow-up. BJU Int. 2006;
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15. Fitzgerald MP, Thom DH, Wassel-Fyr C, et al. Childhood
urinary symptoms predict adult overactive bladder
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16. Nygaard I. Clinical practice. Idiopathic urgency urinary
incontinence. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363:1156--62.
17. Dallosso HM, McGrother CW, Matthews RJ, et al.
The association of diet and other lifestyle factors
with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a
longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 2003; 92:69--77.
18. Subak LL, Wing R, West DS, et al. Weight loss to treat
urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women.
N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:481--90.
19. Hashim H, Abrams P. How should patients with an
overactive bladder manipulate their fluid intake? BJU
Int. 2008; 102:62--6.
20. Swithinbank L, Hashim H, Abrams P. The effect of fluid
intake on urinary symptoms in women. J Urol. 2005;
21. Bryant CM, Dowell CJ, Fairbrother G. Caffeine
reduction education to improve urinary symptoms. Br J
Nurs. 2002; 11:560--5.
22. Hay-Smith J, Morkved S, Fairbrother KA, et al. Pelvic
floor muscle training for prevention and treatment
of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and
postnatal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews 2008. Art. No.: CD007471.
23. Van Kampen M, De Weerdt W, Van Poppel H, et al.
Effect of pelvic-floor re-education on duration and
degree of incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a
randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000; 355:98--102.
24. Nabi G, Cody JD, Ellis G, et al. Anticholinergic drugs
versus placebo for overactive bladder syndrome in
adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2006. Art. No.: CD003781.
25. Alhasso AA, McKinlay J, Patrick K, et al.
Anticholinergic drugs versus non-drug active therapies
for overactive bladder syndrome in adults. Cochrane
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Treatment of overactive bladder in women. Evid Rep
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27. National Prescribing Service. Managing urinary
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28. Wilt TJ, N'Dow J. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Part
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30. Mariappan P, Alhasso A, Ballantyne Z, et al. Duloxetine,
a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)
for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a
systematic review. Eur Urol. 2007; 51:67--74.
31. Rogers RG. Clinical practice. Urinary stress
incontinence in women. N Engl J Med. 2008;
32. Cody JD, Richardson K, Moehrer B, et al. Oestrogen
therapy for urinary incontinence in post-menopausal
women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2009. Art. No.: CD001405.
33. Hendrix SL, Cochrane BB, Nygaard IE, et al. Effects
of estrogen with and without progestin on urinary
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evidence in patient care
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