Home' Australian Pharmacist : July 2011 Contents Vol. 30 -- July #07
Continuing Professional Development
The articles in this series are independently researched and compiled by PSA commissioned authors and peer reviewed.
framed in terms of the collaborative
partner's own motivations. Open-
ended questions are those questions
that cannot be answered with a
'yes' or 'no' response, for example,
'How do you feel about this service?'
or 'In what ways would you like to
be involved in this service?'.This
allows the respondent to provide
Also consider the way in which
information is presented. Information
received first is likely to have a
disproportionately large effect on
judgement, known as the 'primacy
effect'.8 Asch and de Almeida Neto
and colleagues both found that
subjects rated people or medications
more favourably when positive
information was presented first.
This principal also applies when
communicating information about a
professional service to other health
professionals, and therefore positive
information (such as health benefits
for patients) should be presented or
Other communication techniques
include reflective listening by
paraphrasing what the health
professional has said to show
understanding of their interests.
Reflective listening involves relaying
what has been heard in different
words. This helps to show that
you are listening and is useful for
Expressing empathy is also important
if the health professional expresses
concerns about the service or
previous negative experiences
they may have had. If the health
professional mentions a previous
negative experience with the service,
this can be used an opportunity to
collaborate on how best to avoid that
particular problem in the future.
Practical tools to support
The Pharmaceutical Society of
Australia conducts educational
workshops that explore
and collaboration. Contact your local
branch for more information on what
courses are available.
The Professional Practice Standards,
Version 4, 2010 also includes
some tools that can assist with
Appendix 5 provides a tool for
recording the details of local health
care providers, Appendix 10 provides
a screening record and referral form,
and Appendix 11 provides a template
consumer care plan.
Key learning points
• Establishing good inter-professional
relationships is essential for
professional service implementation
as damaged or weak relationships
may affect the success of the
• Collaboration between health care
professionals has shown to be a
strong indicator of good health
• Pharmacists may collaborate with
a number of different health care
professionals depending on which
professional services they provide.
• All professional services could
potentially require collaboration if
that is what is required to optimise
health outcomes for the consumer.
• Barriers to successful collaboration
include psychological reactance
and a lack of trust, an absence of a
collaborative culture and a lack of
• Strategies for overcoming barriers
to collaboration include utilising
effective communication techniques.
1. Roberts AS, Benrimoj SI, Dunphy D, et al. Community
pharmacy: Strategic change management. Sydney:
2. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS. To err is human
-- building a safer health system. Washington, DC:
National Academies Press; 2000.
3. Chen TF, de Almeida Neto AC. Exploring elements of
interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists
and physicians in medication review. Pharm World Sci.
4. Brehm JW. A theory of psychological reactance. New
York, NY: Academic Press; 1966.
5. de Almeida Neto AC, Chen TF. When
pharmacotherapeutic recommendations may lead to
the reverse effect on physician decision-making. Pharm
World Sci. 2007; 30:3--8.
6. Nielsen BB. The role of trust in collaborative
relationships: A multi-dimensional approach.
Management. 2003/4; 7:239--56.
7. de Almeida Neto AC. Training community pharmacists
on cognitive behavioural intervention strategies.
University of Sydney; 2000.
8. Asch S. Forming impressions of personality. J Abnorm
Soc Psychol. 1946; 41:258--90.
9. de Almeida Neto AC, Chen TF, Chan JHL. 'Order effect'
in the provision of medication information. MJA. 2002;
1. Collaboration has been shown
a) improve health outcomes.
b) have no effect on health outcomes.
c) have little effect on health
d) worsen health outcomes.
2. Which of the following
professional services requires
collaboration with other health
a) Home Medicine Review.
b) Dose Administration Aids.
c) Health screening and monitoring.
d) All of the above.
3. Which of the following
communication techniques can
a) Closed questions.
b) Open-ended questions.
c) Neither closed nor open questions.
A score of 3 out of 4 attracts 0.75 CPD credits.
4. Which of the following is the
best strategy for overcoming
barriers to collaboration?
a) Brief discussions with other health
professionals by phone.
b) Avoiding discussions with other
c) Face-to-face discussions with other
d) Providing written information to
other health professionals.
supporting pharmacy practice
Links Archive August 2011 June 2011 Navigation Previous Page Next Page