Home' Australian Pharmacist : January 2011 Contents Vol.30–January#01
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20. Norton P, Brubaker L. Urinary incontinence in women.
Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):57–67.
21. Gibbs CF, Johnson TM 2nd, Ouslander JG. Office
management of geriatric urinary incontinence. Am J
Med. 2007 Mar;120(3):211–20.
22. Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Wyman J, Wilt TJ. Systematic
review: randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical
treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Ann
Intern Med. 2008 Mar 18;148(6):459–73.
23. Endocrinology Expert Group. Therapeutic Guidelines:
endocrinology. Version 4. Melbourne: Therapeutic
24. Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Gerstenberger EP, Kerlikowske
K. Changes in the use of postmenopausal hormone
therapy after the publication of clinical trial results.
Ann Intern Med. 2004 Feb 3;140(3):184–8
25. Ettinger B, Grady D, Tosteson AN, Pressman A, Macer
JL. Effect of the Women’s Health Initiative on women’s
decisions to discontinue postmenopausal hormone
therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Dec;102(6):1225–32
26. Grady D, Ettinger B, Tosteson AN, Pressman A,
Macer JL. Predictors of difficulty when discontinuing
postmenopausal hormone therapy. Obstet Gynecol.
1. Which one of the following
statements is false?
a) 75% of women experience
symptoms associated with
b) For most women, menopausal
symptoms typically improve within
two years of their initial appearance.
c) The peak occurrence of vasomotor
symptoms usually occurs within
a month of a woman’s final
d) Approximately 2% of women aged
in their 70’s experience moderate-
2. Which one of the following
statements is true in relation to
HT and the risk of developing
a) A recent Cochrane review showed
that neither oestrogen-containing
hormone therapy or oestrogen
combined with a progestagen is
protective against dementia.
b) A recent Cochrane review showed
that progestagen is protective
c) The WHIMS study showed that
therapy helps to prevent the
development of dementia in
individuals over the age of 65 years.
d) The WHIMS study showed that
progestagen therapy helps to
prevent the development of
dementia in individuals over the
age of 65 years.
3. Which of the following statements
is true in relation to ceasing HT?
a) Vasomotor symptoms return in
more than 80% of women once HT
is discontinued .
b) Vasomotor symptoms return in
about 50% of women once HT is
c) Vasomotor symptoms return in
less than 20% of women once HT
therapy is discontinued.
A score of 3 out of 4 attracts 0.75 CPD credits.
4. Which one of the following
statements is true?
a) Oral oestrogen therapy is useful
in the management of stress
b) Vaginal oestrogen therapy is useful
in the management of functional
c) Vaginal oestrogen is not useful for
reducing urinary tract infections.
d) It is necessary to consider using
a progestagen in a woman who is
using long-term vaginal oestrogens
and has an intact uterus.
27. Haskell SG. After the Women’s Health Initiative:
postmenopausal women’s experiences with
discontinuing estrogen replacement therapy. J Womens
28. Ness J, Aronow WE, Beck G. Menopausal symptoms
after cessation of hormone replacement therapy.
29. Schonberg MA, Wee CC. Menopausal symptom
management and prevention counselling after Women’s
Health Initiative among women seen in an internal
medicine practice. J Womens Health 2005;14:507–14.
30. Canfell K, Banks E, Moa AM, Beral V. Decrease in
breast cancer incidence following a rapid fall in use of
hormone replacement therapy in Australia. MJA. 2008
31. Mack TM, Pike MC, Henderson BE, et al. Estrogens and
endometrial cancer in a retirement community. NEJM.
1976 Jun 3;294(23):1262–7.
32. Ziel HK, Finkle WD. Increased risk of endometrial
carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens.
NEJM. 1975 Dec 4;293(23):1167–70.
33. Jick H, Watkins RN, Hunter JR, et al. Replacement
estrogens and endometrial cancer. NEJM. 1979 Feb
34. Politi MC, Schleinitz MD, Col NF. Revisiting the
duration of vasomotor symptoms of menopause: a
metaanalysis.J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:1507–13.
35. Aslan E, Bagis T, Kilicdag, et al. how best is to
discontinue postmenopausal hormone therapy:
Immediate or tapered? Maturitas 2007;56:78–83.
36. Haimov-Kochman R, Barak-Glantz E, Arbel R, et al.
Gradual discontinuation of hormone therapy does not
prevent the reappearance of climacteric symptoms: a
randomized prospective study. Menopause. 2006 May-
37. Lindh-Astrand L, Bixo M, Hirschberg AL, Sundström-
Poromaa I, Hammar M. A randomized controlled study
of taper-down or abrupt discontinuation of hormone
therapy in women treated for vasomotor symptoms.
Menopause. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):72–9.
38. Cunha EP, Azevedo LH, Pompei LM, et al. Effect of
abrupt discontinuation versus gradual dose reduction
of postmenopausal hormone therapy on hot flushes.
39. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative
Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus
progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal
results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized
controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:321–33.
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