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Continuing Professional Development
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SOLUTIONS THROUGH COMPOUNDING
1. The most characteristic clinical sign
of a Tritrichomonas foetus infection
a) chronic waxing and waning of large
b) lack of appetite.
c) evidence of muscle wasting.
d) presentation of well-formed, often
e) trembling of the extremities,
hyperesthesia and seizures.
RECOMMENDED dose of ronidazole?
a) 150 mg twice daily for 7 days
b) 200 mg daily for 7 days
c) 100 mg daily for 14 days
d) 150 mg daily for 14 days
e) 50 mg three times daily for 14 days
3. When preparing ronidazole capsules
extemporaneously, the pharmacist:
a) should choose an appropriate capsule
size, which in the case of a 150 mg
dose is likely to be a size 0.
b) is required to include a diluent or
filler, if the dose is adequate to fill the
volume of the capsule.
c) is not required to store capsule shells
in a dry place, as they are not likely to
become sticky even under conditions
of high humidity.
d) may add a glidant to facilitate breakup
and distribution of the capsule's
contents in the gastrointestinal fluids.
e) should clean the capsules by rubbing
them with a clean cloth to remove
powder which may pose a safety
problem for either the pharmacist
handling the capsules or the
4. Lactose, included into capsules
extemporaneously prepared by a
pharmacist, is a:
e) active pharmaceutical ingredient.
5. Instructions for packaging, labelling
and storage of ronidazole capsules
a) storage below 40ºC.
b) an expiry date that is three months
c) labelling 'FOR ANIMAL AND HUMAN
d) packaging in a childproof, non light
e) the species of animal and the name of
the animal's owner.
A score of 4 out of 5 attracts 1 CPD credit.
for 14 days, to be effective with no
evidence of recurrence for at least six
months following treatment. Adverse
effects were observed in only one cat
which later died of feline infectious
peritonitis, which could not be
definitively attributed to RDZ therapy.1
Key learning points
• Pharmacists should advise on
the treatment of Tritrichomonas
foetus infection in cats with
• Pharmacists in consultation with
veterinarians should decide on a
ronidazole dose, capsule size and
appropriate components, should they
• Pharmacists should take care and avoid
exposure of themselves, other staff and
pet owners and their families, since
ronidazole is carcinogenic.
1. Bell ET, Gowan RA, Lingard AE, et al. Naturally occurring
Tritrichomonas foetus infections in Australian cats: 38 cases.
J Feline Med Surg. 2010; 12(12):889--98.
2. Gookin JL, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG, et al. Diarrhea associated
with trichomonosis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;
3. Gunn-Moore DA, McCann TM, Reed N, et al. Prevalence of
Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhoea in the UK.
J Feline Med Surg. 2007; 9(3):214--8.
4. Xenoulis PG, Saridomichelakis MN, Read SA, et al. Detection of
Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Greece. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;
5. Holliday M, Deni D, Gunn-Moore DA. Tritrichomonas foetus
infection in cats with diarrhoea in a rescue colony in Italy.
J Feline Med Surg. 2009; 11(2):131--4.
6. Tysnes K, Gjerde B, Nodtevdt A, et al. A cross-sectional study of
Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in
Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 2011; 53(1):39.
7. Frey CF, Schild M, Hemphill A, et al. Intestinal Tritrichomonas
foetus infection in cats in Switzerland detected by in vitro
cultivation and PCR. Parasitol Res. 2009; 104(4):783--8.
8. van Doorn DC, de Bruin MJ, Jorritsma RA, et al. Prevalence
of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats. Tijdschr
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9. Kingsbury DD, Marks SL, Cave NJ, et al. Identification of
Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia spp. infection in pedigree
show cats in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2010; 58(1):6--10.
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feline diarrhea. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2009; 31(8):374--81.
11. Gookin JL, Copple CN, Papich MG, et al. Efficacy of ronidazole for
treatment of feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection. J Vet Intern
Med. 2006; 20(3):536--43.
12. Gookin JL, Stauffer SH, Coccaro MR, et al. Efficacy of
tinidazole for treatment of cats experimentally infected with
Tritrichomonas foetus. Am J Vet Res. 2007; 68(10):1085--8.
13. Kather EJ, Marks SL, Kass PH. Determination of the in vitro
susceptibility of feline tritrichomonas foetus to 5 antimicrobial
agents. J Vet Intern Med. 2007; 21(5):966--70.
14. LeVine DN, Papich MG, Gookin JL, et al. Ronidazole
pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral immediate-
release capsule administration in healthy cats. J Feline Med
Surg. 2011; 13(4):244--50.
15. Rosado TW, Specht A, Marks SL. Neurotoxicosis in 4 cats
receiving ronidazole. J Vet Intern Med. 2007; 21(2):328--31.
16. Gookin JL, Stauffer SH, Dybas D, et al. Documentation of in
vivo and in vitro aerobic resistance of feline Tritrichomonas
foetus isolates to ronidazole. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;
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London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2011.
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Veterinary Medicines Authority. PUBCRIS Public Chemical
Registration Information System [online]. [Accessed 17 Aug
2010]. At: http://services.apvma.gov.au/PubcrisWebClient/
19. Davidson GS. Ronidazole in the treatment of Trichomonad
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20. Allen LV, Popovich NG, Ansel HC. Ansel's pharmaceutical
dosage forms and drug delivery systems. 9th ed. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
21. Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook. 21st ed.
Canberra: PSA; 2009.
22. Professional Practice Standards. Version 4. Compounding.
Canberra: PSA; 2010.
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