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4. Lopez AD, et al. Global burden of disease and risk factors.
Washington DC: The World Bank; 2006.
5. Access Economics. Economic Impact of COPD and Cost
Effective Solutions. The Australian Lung Foundation; 2008.
6. Calverley PMA, Walker P. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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7. de Marco R, Accordini S, Cerveri I, et al. Incidence of chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort of young adults
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Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and
the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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9. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD).
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of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [online]. 2011. At:
10. Levy ML, Quanjer PH, Booker R, et al. Diagnostic spirometry in
primary care: Proposed standards for general practice compliant
with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory
Society recommendations. Prim Care Respir J. 2009; 18:130–47 .
11. Fabbri LM, Boschetto P, Mapp CE. COPD guidelines: the
important thing is not to stop questioning. Am J Respir Crit Care
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12. Soriano JB, Zielinski J, Price D. Screening for and early detection
of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet. 2009;
13. McKenzie DK, Abramson M, Crockett AJ, et al. on behalf of
The Australian Lung Foundation. The COPD-X Plan: Australian
and New Zealand Guidelines for the management of Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2011.
14. Agusti, AG. Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005; 2:367–70.
15. Han MK, Kim MG, Mardon R, et al. Spirometry utilization for
COPD: how do we measure up? Chest. 2007; 132:403–9 .
16. Joo MJ, Lee TA, Weiss KB. Geographic variation of spirometry use
in newly diagnosed COPD. Chest. 2008; 134:38–45.
17. Wilt TJ, Niewoehner D, Kim C, et al. Use of Spirometry for Case
Finding, Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Obstructive
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diagnosis of COPD in general practice. Respir Med. 2005;
22. Bellia V, Sorino C, Catalano F, et al. Validation of FEV6 in the
elderly: correlates of performance and repeatability. Thorax.
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utility of the new PiKo-6 device. Respiration. 2009; 78:161–7 .
24. Melbye H, Medbo A, Crockett A. The FEV1/FEV6 ratio is a good
substitute for the FEV1/FVC ratio in the elderly. Prim Care Respir
J. 2006; 15:294–8 .
1. The FEV1/FEV6 cut-off ratio
recommended by the Australian
Lung Foundation when using a
COPD screening device to identify
individuals who should be referred
for diagnostic spirometry is:
b) < 0.75.
c) < 0.70.
d) None of the above.
2. Which ONE of the following FEV1
% predicted values would indicate
that a patient has mild stage COPD
according to COPD-X Guidelines?
a) FEV1 = 60%.
b) FEV1 = 49%.
c) FEV1 = 40%.
3. Which of Mr Schmidt’s known
risk factors identify him as being
a suitable candidate for COPD
risk assessment and screening in
a) Smoking history.
c) Repeated episodes of respiratory tract
4. The PiKO-6 device is a screening tool
5. Early detection of COPD is important
in order to:
a) increase the rate of decline in lung
b) prevent exacerbations.
c) reduce cough and increase sputum
d) reduce exercise capacity.
A score of 4 out of 5 attracts 1 CPD credit.
EVIDENCE IN PATIENT CARE
25. Vandevoorde J, Verbanck S, Schuermans D, et al.
Obstructive and restrictive spirometric patterns: fixed cut-
offs for FEV1/FEV6 and FEV6. Eur Respir J. 2006; 27:378–83 .
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validation of the PiKo-6 in primary care. Prim Care Respir J.
2011; 20:190–8 .
27. Represas Represas C, Botana Rial M, Leiro Fernandez V, et al.
Assessment of the portable COPD-6 device for detecting
obstructive airway diseases. Arch Bronconeumol. 2010;
28. Australian Lung Foundation. Position Paper on the Use of
COPD screening devices for targeted COPD case finding in
community settings. 2011
29. Guthrey P, Reeves P. Focus on standards – primary health
care services. QCPP Excellence newsletter. 2011; Apr-
30. Price D, Crockett A, Arne M, et al. Spirometry in primary
care case-identification, diagnosis and management of
COPD. Prim Care Respir J. 2009; 18:216–23.
31. Castillo D, Guayta R, Giner J, et al. COPD case finding by
spirometry in high-risk customers of urban community
pharmacies: A pilot study. Respir Med. 2009; 103:839–45.
32. Gorecka D, et al. Diagnosis of airflow limitation combined
with smoking cessation increases stop smoking rate. Chest.
33. Allan H, Diamandis S, Saini B, et al. A collaborative
screening, referral and management process to improve
health outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease ( COPD). Fourth Community Pharmacy Agreement
IIGO52 Final Report, Pharmacy Guild of Australia; 2010.
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