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Continuing Professional Development
Submit your answers online at www.psa.org.au and receive automatic feedback
SUPPORTING PHARMACY PRACTICE
1. Patient-centred care involves:
a) Shifting patients from active to
b) Pharmacists partnering primarily with
doctors to improve patient outcomes.
c) Giving patients information leaflets.
d) Including a patient in decision-making.
2. Select the statement that is
consistent with the principles of
a) Health professionals should factor in
patient beliefs but not expectations.
b) Health professionals should design
non-negotiable disease management
c) Health professionals should design
health plans and get patients to agree.
d) None of the above.
3. Strategies in achieving patient-
centred care include:
a) developing models that improve
b) involving patients so that they can
c) providing the same advice irrespective
d) acknowledging health literacy is the
responsibility of the patient.
4. Which of the following is NOT
included as a right within the
Australian Charter of Healthcare
A score of 3 out of 4 attracts 0.75 CPD credits.
Cancer burden in Australia
Over the past quarter century, cancer
incidence rates in Australia have
increased while deaths from cancer have
steadily decreased a study published
early online in the Asia-Pacific Journal of
Clinical Oncology has found.
Compared with any other disease group,
cancer has the greatest overall impact
on Australians' health, with one in two
Australians developing cancer and one
in five dying from it before the age of 85.
The Australian Institute of Health and
Welfare has produced an up-to-date
snapshot of cancer in the country based
on its cancer data holdings and regular
reports, including statistics on incidence,
mortality, survival, and participation in
national cancer screening programs.
The study provides information from
2007, trends from 1982 to 2007, and
estimations for 2010. In 2007, a total of
108,368 new cases of cancer (excluding
basal and squamous cell carcinoma of
the skin) and 39,884 deaths from cancer
occurred in Australia. Men were most
often diagnosed with prostate cancer,
while women were most often diagnosed
with breast cancer. Lung cancer was by far
the most common cause of cancer death
in both males and females.
When looking at trends, the investigators
found that the number of new cancer
cases diagnosed each year increased
from 1982 to 2007 for both males and
females, which can be explained by
the aging and increasing size of the
population. In females, the overall cancer
incidence rate rose from 1982 through
the early 1990s, after which the rate
remained relatively stable. In males, the
overall cancer incidence rate rose from
1982 to 1994, followed by a decline in
rates until the late 1990s, when rates
began to rise again. From 1982 to 2007,
cancer death rates have decreased
steadily for both sexes, so that the five-
year survival rates for many cancers have
improved markedly since the 1980s.
The report uncovered certain disparities
in cancer incidence and death rates in
recent years. Most notably, the overall
incidence rate of cancer for Indigenous
Australians was lower than that for non-
indigenous Australians, while the overall
death rate from cancer was higher.
More diagnoses at advanced stages,
less uptake of cancer treatments, and a
greater number of other illnesses may
contribute to the higher death rates in
To provide a more current picture of
the cancer burden in Australia, the
authors extrapolated their findings to
2010, noting that about 113,700 new
cases of cancer (excluding basal and
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin)
were expected to be diagnosed. Of
these, 63,200 were expected to be in
males and 50,500 in females. Compared
with the numbers of new cancer cases
diagnosed in 2007, this equates to a 2%
increase in males and a 9% increase in
females, mainly due to aging and growth
of the population. Prostate cancer, bowel
cancer, and melanoma of the skin in
males, and breast cancer, bowel cancer,
and melanoma of the skin in females
were expected to continue to be the
most commonly diagnosed cancers
The researchers also looked at rates
of participation in Australia's national
screening programs for breast, cervical,
and bowel cancers. From 2007 to
2008, over 1.6 million women had
a screening mammogram through
BreastScreen Australia, which translates
to a participation rate of 55% for
women in the target age group of 50 to
69 years. During that same time, over
3.6 million women participated in the
National Cervical Screening Program,
a participation rate of 61% for women
in the target age group of 20 to 69
years. Also, almost 280,000 people
(40% of those invited) participated in
the National Bowel Cancer Screening
Program in 2008.
Harding N, et al. Cancer in Australia: Actual Incidence and
Mortality Data From 1982 to 2007 and Projections to 2010.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1743-
7563.2011.01502.x . URL upon online publication: http://doi.wiley.
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