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Continuing Professional Development
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1 June 2012 at www.psa.org.au
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PSA CPD answers
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NZCP CPD answers,
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Australian Pharmacist Continuing Professional
Development (CPD) is a central element of PSA's
CPD&PI program. It is also part of the New Zealand
College of Pharmacists (NZCP) education program
for NZ pharmacists.
The CPD section is recognised under the PSA
CPD&PI program as a Group 2 activity. Members
can choose which articles they want to answer
questions on and get CPD credits based on the
questions they answer. The credits allocated to
each section and the pass mark are shown with
CPD credits are allocated based on the length of
the article and the complexity of the information
presented. A minimum of 6 out of 8 questions, 4
out of 5 questions, or 3 out of 4 questions correct is
required for the allocation of Group 2 CPD Credits.
If not submitting online, write the correct answers
in the spaces provided on the answer panel on
the back of the address sheet, fill in your name,
member number and address details, then either
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address and fax number for marking.
PSA members can answer online at
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• Select Australian Pharmacist CPD.
1.Which of the following BPSD is MOST
likely to respond to antipsychotic
2. A resident in an aged care facility
shouts and becomes aggressive
when taken for his shower. The BEST
treatment would be to:
a) prescribe haloperidol to use before
b) commence him on risperidone
0.25 mg before showering.
c) consider bathing the resident in bed.
If this does not relieve his aggression,
consider other possible causes of
3. The newer (atypical) antipsychotics:
a) do not cause extrapyramidal adverse
effects in the elderly.
b) are less likely than older (typical)
antipsychotics to cause extrapyramidal
adverse effects in the elderly, but
elderly patients should still be
monitored for the emergence of
c) nearly always cause extrapyramidal
adverse effects in the elderly, and
therefore elderly patients should
be monitored for the emergence of
4. Which of the following groups
of symptoms are all possible
contributors to behavioural
problems in dementia?
a) Soft lighting, urinary incontinence,
b) Pain, constipation, boredom.
c) Hunger, constipation, one-on-one
quiet talking, aromatherapy.
d) Loud noises, cold temperature,
A score of 3 out of 4 attracts 0.75 CPD credits.
The National Dementia Behaviour
Management Advisory Service
(1800 699 799) provides information
about managing behavioural problems.7
1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Dementia in Australia:
National data analysis and development. AIHW cat. no. AGE 53.
Canberra: AIHW; 2007.
2. National Prescribing Service. Drugs Used in Dementia and the
Elderly. NPS News 59 [online] 2008 [accessed 31 Oct 2011]. At:
www.nps.org.au/healthpro Go to Publications, NPS News, NPS
3. National Prescribing Service. Treating the Symptoms of
Dementia. Educational Visiting Card. NPS; Aug 2008.
4. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines Psychotropic
Monograph [CD-rom]. North Melbourne: Therapeutic
Guidelines; Nov 2011.
5. Pharmacotherapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms
of dementia: Time for a different paradigm? Pharmacotherapy.
2001; 21(1) [online] 2001 [accessed 4 Nov 2011]. At: www.
6. National Prescribing Service. Treating the Symptoms of
Dementia. PPR 43 [online] 2008 [accessed 31 Oct 2011]. At:
www.nps.org.au/healthpro Go to Publications, Prescribing
Practice Review, PPR 43.
7. O'Connor DW, Ames D, Gardner B, et al. Psychosocial treatments
of behavior symptoms in dementia: a systematic review of
reports meeting quality standards. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009 Apr;
8. Australian Government Department of Veteran's Affairs.
Antipsychotics in Dementia. Veteran's MATES Therapeutic Brief.
9. National Prescribing Service. Balancing the Benefits and Harms
of Antipsychotic Therapy. NPS; Sep 2011.
10. National Prescribing Service. Antipsychotic Therapy. PPR 55
[online] 2011 [accessed 31 Oct 2011]. At: www.nps.org.au/
healthpro Go to Publications, Prescribing Practice Review, PPR 55.
11. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Practice
guide NICE/SCIE: Dementia: supporting people with dementia
and their carers in health and social care. NIHCE; 2006.
12. Carson S, McDonagh M, Peterson K. A systematic review of the
efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in patients with
psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. J Am
Geriatr Soc. 2006; 54(2):354--61 [online] 2006 [accessed 4 Nov
2011]. At: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/524308
13. Ballard CG, Waite J, Birks J. Atypical antipsychotics for aggression
and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003476.
14. Gentile S. Second-generation antipsychotics in dementia:
beyond safety concerns. A clinical, systematic review of efficacy
data from randomised controlled trials. Psychopharmacology
(Berl). 2010; 212:119--29.
15. Ballard C, Creese B, Corbett A, et al. Atypical antipsychotics for
the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in
dementia, with a particular focus on longer term outcomes and
mortality. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2011; 10:35--43.
16. Schneider L, Dagerman K, Insel PS. Efficacy and adverse effects
of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of
randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry.
17. Australian Medicines Handbook. Australian Medicines
Handbook Drug Choice Companion: Aged Care. 3rd edition.
18. National Prescribing Service. Balancing Benefits and Harms of
Antipsychotic Therapy. NPS News 74 [online] 2011 [accessed
31 Oct 2011]. At: www.nps.org.au/healthpro Go to Publications,
NPS News, NPS News 74.
19. Rossi S (ed). Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: AMH;
20. Centre for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental
Health. Antipsychotic Side Effect Checklist [online] [accessed 31
Oct 2011]. At: www.cqaimh.org/pdf/tool_asc.pdf
21. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines Neurology
Monograph [CD-rom]. North Melbourne: Therapeutic
Guidelines; Jul 2011.
22. American Geriatric Society. Guide to the management of
psychotic disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms of
dementia in older adults. Apr 2011 [online] 2011 [accessed
4 Nov 2011]. At: http://dementia.americangeriatrics.org/
23. Ballard C, Hanney ML, Theodoulou M, et al. The dementia
antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up
of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009;
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