Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist November 2016 Contents Australian Pharmacist November 2016 I ©Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUPPORTING PHARMACY PRACTICE
detailing management theories
surrounding team composition and
roles and delegation skills, to assist in
developing plans within the business to
facilitate organisational effectiveness.
Once the culture within a team
is established, building a team to
operate effectively relies on managing
interpersonal relations, setting goals,
defining roles and solving conflicts
and issues (see October Australian
Pharmacist, page 44).
More specifically defined, effectiveness
within a team relies on a number of
functional components that can be
divided as follows1:
1. Clarity, culture, and communication.
2. Resource and structure.
3. Team composition and roles.
4. Work design and delegation.
1. Clarity, culture, and communication
For a team to be effective, common
purpose, norms and specific goals
need to be defined.
The team needs
to also have conviction that goals
can be achieved, and confidence that
they can work together successfully.
Conflict needs to be managed through
quality communication, to stimulate
diversity, critical thinking and innovation
rather than triggering animosity, tension
2. Resource and structure
Effective teams work within a framework
where adequate resources are present.
A scarcity of resources such as timely
and current information, technology,
adequate staffing, supportive leadership
and administrative assistance can hinder
the effectiveness of a work team.
important to have leadership structure
and performance evaluation systems
in place so that team members feel
appreciated, and have support to gain a
sense of direction and confidence.
Eamon realises he is expecting his
team to work in an environment where
resources are lacking and organisational
culture, communication and procedures
are not conducive to an effective
team. Training, development and
open communication have not been
established as regular practice in the
pharmacy, which have resulted in a
lack of training focus and suboptimal
information exchange. Eamon is
working on communication processes,
but he feels so busy working on tasks
like dispensing, ordering and clinical
interventions that he has no time to
direct team members or extend a sense
3. Team composition and roles
In developing effective teams,
management needs to consider the
ability of staff members in areas such
as technical, problem solving and
also be considered as people will often
gravitate to, or naturally fill, a specific
role within a team, governed by their
own unique characteristics.
with Belbin’s theory, people tend to
adopt roles or personas within a team
with which they feel most comfortable,
such as ‘shapers’, ‘completer/finishers’,
‘team workers’ or ‘coordinators’ amongst
other team roles defined under this
However, flexibility is also
important in team effectiveness, and
managers should focus on recruiting
team members who value flexibility and
are willing to be trained to do another
team member’s role.
This interests Eamon as he can now
highlight his ‘shapers’ who are more
visionary, his ‘team workers who whilst
not innovative are happy to work to
achieve team goals, and his ‘coordinators’
who are efficient at allocating tasks to
relevant team members.
He can use
this model to better assign current staff
and recruit new staff in the pharmacy.
4. Work design and delegation
Team member motivation and
performance, and hence team
effectiveness, can be maximised where
people are given the opportunity to
work autonomously, utilising a diversity
of skills. When given a whole and
identifiable task that has a significant
impact within the workplace, team
members feel satisfied and empowered,
and gain an increased sense of
responsibility and ownership.
Delegation is an excellent opportunity
for growth and development of both
the team and individual team members.
It involves the delegation of work
to staff members in such a way that
their skills are enhanced and they
learn more about the workplace and
how it functions.
The concept of
‘developmental delegation’ builds staff
confidence in handling unfamiliar tasks
as managers delegate activities that
are interesting and challenging but not
Effective delegation allows team
members to increase not only their
knowledge and activity-based skills, but
also their ability to make decisions, which
further contributes to organisational
In saying this though, not
all activities that are delegated are
interesting and challenging. Some
instead may be repetitive and non-
challenging, but essential in creating an
efficient and effective team. Delegation
strengthens the work unit. It allows
for better allocation of workplace
resources, and the increase in manager
coordination through delegation fosters
work integration and hence efficiency.
Delegation enhances employee
commitment, and increases morale,
autonomy and motivation.
allows team members
to increase not only
their knowledge and
but also their ability to
make decisions, which
further contributes to
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