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CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
11. Hietbrink E, Bakshi R, Moles RJ. Australian caregivers’
management of childhood ailments. The Int JPharm Pract
2013. Epub 2013 Sept 17.
12. Emmerton L, Chaw XY, Kelly F, et al. Management of
children’s fever by parents and caregivers: practical
measurement of functional health literacy. J Child Health
Care2013. Epub 2013 Aug 3.
13. Green R, Jeena P, Kotze S, et al. Management of acute fever
in children: guideline for community healthcare providers
and pharmacists. S Afr Med J 2013;103(12):948–54.
14. Wong T, Stang AS, Ganshorn H, et al. Combined and
alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile
children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
15. Hewson P. Paracetamol: overused in childhood fever.
Australian Prescriber 2000;23:60–1 .
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fever. Clinical practice guidelines. 2nd edn. North Sydney;
NSW Department of Health; 2010.
17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Feverish
illness in children: assessment and initial management in
children younger than 5 years. London: National Institute
for Health and Care Excellence; 2013
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parents: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2006;54:217–27.
19. So E, Moles R. Caregivers’ management of childhood fever
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COUNSELLING IN PRACTICE
1. Which of the following non-
pharmacological strategies should
be used to assist with pain relief for
a) Plenty of cuddles.
b) Distraction with television.
c) Ice packs or heat treatments.
d) All of the above.
2. Which ONE of the following
statements on pain assessment is
a) Numeric pain scales are useful for
younger children and infants.
b) Pain rating scales have limited use.
c) Reviewing behaviour does not assist
with pain assessment in children.
d) The Q.U.E .S .T process in children is a
commonly used pain assessment tool.
3. Which of the following is an
appropriate dose and dosing interval
for a pain-relieving medicine to treat
acute tooth extraction pain in the
a) Paracetamol 20 mg/kg every 4 hours.
b) Ibuprofen 10 mg/kg every 4 hours.
c) Paracetamol 15 mg/kg every 4–6 hours.
d) Ibuprofen 15 mg/kg every 6 hours.
4. Which ONE of the following
statements is INCORRECT?
a) Paracetamol and ibuprofen in
combination is best only used on the
advice of a doctor.
b) Paracetamol is preferred over ibuprofen
for treating inflammation.
c) Paracetamol administered by the rectal
route has unpredictable absorption.
d) There is considerable inter-individual
variation in the metabolism of codeine.
Pain can be difficult to assess in children so a variety of assessment strategies need
to be used.
Caregivers should be advised to trial an OTC analgesic agent for their child’s
mild-to-moderate pain, if they believe it is present.
Fever itself does not need intervention with analgesia, so should only be treated
when a child has obvious discomfort.
The pharmacist must give careful instructions on weight-based dosing as dosing
mistakes are common.
If a child’s pain does not respond well to OTC analgesia, referral is required.
1. International Association for the Study of Pain. Pain. 2016.
2. McCaffery M, Beebe A. Pain: clinical manual for nursing
practice. 1989. Company CVM, editor. St Louis, Missouri.
3. Baker CM, Wong DL. Q.U.E .S .T: a process of pain assessment
in children. Orthopaedic Nursing 1987;6(1):11–21.
4. International Association for the Study of Pain. Faces
pain scale - revised home. 2016. At: www.iasp-pain.org/
5. Beggs S. Paediatric analgesia. Australian Prescriber
6. Chin M, ed. AMH Children’s dosing companion. Adelaide:
Australian Medicines Handbook; 2016.
7. The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne. Day surgery:
dental surgery - discharge care. 2012. At: www.rch.org.
8. McGrath PJ, Finley, GA, Ritchie, J, et al. Pain, pain go away :
helping children with pain. 2nd edn. Halifax: 2003.
9. Rossi S, ed. Australian medicines handbook. Opioid
analgesics. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2016.
10. Pain management for children. 2016. At: www.betterhealth.
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