Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist August 2016 Contents Australian Pharmacist August 2016 I ©Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
cross-sectional US study (n=18,883) it
was reported that individuals with 25-
OHD3 levels <75 nmol/L had a greater
association with recent URTI. This
association between 25-OHD3 levels
and the incidence of URTI seemed to
be stronger in subjects with asthma
and chronic obstructive pulmonary
Ironically, despite the readily
available sun exposure in Australia,
25-OHD3 levels have been reported
to be commonly low in Australians
irrespective of their location.22 Therefore,
it would be incorrect to assume all
individuals have adequate vitamin D
levels. Patients that are prone to
frequent recurrences of URTIs may
benefit from having their 25-OHD3 levels
tested and, if required, supplemented
with lower daily doses of vitamin D3 to
ensure sufficient levels are available to
provide an immunoprotective action.
Evidence-based medicine with a
Herbal medicine has a long traditional
use for URTI and immune support,
and while this is often not deemed to
be sufficient evidence itself, modern
research is finding positive results in
the application of certain herbs to their
traditional uses. That said, as with any
therapeutic agent, in order to achieve a
clinical result, it is essential to prescribe
the correct species and plant parts
that match the doses found to be most
successful in research. Many nutritional
and herbal ingredients are becoming
recognised as therapeutic compounds,
possessing beneficial actions for the
prevention and treatment of infections.
So when a customer presents with a
history of URTIs, you can be confident
that herbal products in their correct
form and dose have been researched as
additional treatment options.
1. Bergman P, Lindh AU, Björkhem-Bergman L, Lindh JD.
Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections: a systematic
review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS One 2013;8(6):e65835.
2. Li J, Song X, Yang T, et al. A systematic review of antibiotic
prescription associated with upper respiratory tract
infections in China. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(19):e3587.
3. van Driel ML, Morgan S, Tapley A, et al. Changing the
antibiotic prescribing of general practice registrars: the
ChAP study protocol for a prospective controlled study
of a multimodal educational intervention. BMC Fam Pract
4. Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr. Association
between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper
respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med
5. NPS Medicinewise Professional. Clinical guidance.
In: Clinical e-Audit. Reducing antibiotic resistance:
management of specific RTIs; 2015. At: www.nps.org.au/__
6. Todd DA, Gulledge TV, Britton ER, et al. Ethanolic Echinacea
purpurea extracts contain a mixture of cytokine-
suppressive and cytokine-inducing compounds, including
some that originate from endophytic bacteria. PLoS
7. Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs and natural supplements. 2nd
edn. Chatswood, New South Wales: Churchill Livingstone;
8. Schapowal A, Klein P, Johnston SL. Echinacea reduces
the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections and
complications: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled
trials. Adv Ther 2015;32(3):187–200.
9. Jawad M, Schoop R, Suter A, et al. Safety and efficacy profile
of Echinacea purpurea to prevent common cold episodes:
a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Evid
Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:841315.
10. Shah SA, Sander S, White CM, et al. Evaluation of echinacea
for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a
meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007;7(7):473–80 .
11. Mills S, Bone K. Principles and practice of phytotherapy:
modern herbal medicine. Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone;
12. Bone K. Clinical applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese
herbs. monographs for the Western herbal practitioner.
Warwick, Queensland: Phytotherapy Press; 1996:96–100.
13. Saxena RC, Singh R, Kumar P, et al. A randomized double
blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract
of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients
with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection.
14. Cáceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Prevention of
common colds with Andrographis paniculata dried extract.
A pilot double blind trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4(2):101–4 .
Cited in: Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, et al.
Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of
uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic
review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther
15. Panossian A, Davtyan T, Gukassyan N, et al. Effect of
andrographolide and Kan Jang–fixed combination of
extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 –on proliferation of
human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune
activation markers in the whole blood cells culture.
16. Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshkina EN, et al. A
randomized, controlled study of Kan Jang versus
amantadine in the treatment of influenza in Volgograd. J
Herb Pharmacother 2003;3(1):77–93 .
17. Hancke J, Burgos R, Cáceres D, et al. A double-blind study
with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms
and improvement in the recovery from common colds.
Phytotherapy Research 1995;9(8):559–62.
18. Melchior J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind,
placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity
of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees
extract fixed combination (Kan jang) in the treatment
of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection.
19. Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double
blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata
fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute
upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis.
20. Bartley J. Vitamin D, innate immunity and upper respiratory
tract infection. J Laryngol Otol 2010;124(5):465–9.
21. Jolliffe DA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. Vitamin D in the
prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic
review of clinical studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
22. van der Mei IA, Ponsonby AL, Engelsen O, et al. The high
prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian
populations is only partly explained by season and latitude.
Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(8):1132–9 .
1. The echinacea species with the
strongest evidence for immune
a) E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E.pallida.
b) E. angustifolia and E. pallida.
c) E. purpurea and E. pallida.
d) E. angustifolia and E. purpurea.
2. Siberian ginseng is able to enhance
immunity via an influence on:
b) Natural killer cells.
d) All of the above.
3. Based upon research evidence,
a) May enhance immunity against
b) May assist in preventing respiratory tract
infections in children.
c) Serum levels can be measured by
testing 23-(OH)D3 levels.
4. Andrographis paniculata is a
traditional Chinese herb with anti-
inflammatory and immunostimulant
properties. What is its main bioactive
b) Retinoic acid.
d) Caffeic acid.
Links Archive Australian Pharmacist July 2016 Australian Pharmacist September 2016 Navigation Previous Page Next Page