Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist April 2016 Contents Australian Pharmacist April 2016 I ©Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
6. Pharmaco Profile gene test. At: www.sonicgenetics.com.au/
7. McMahon T, Tucci J. The perceptions of pharmacists in
Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications.
Pharm Pract 2011;9:141–147.
8. National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia. At:
9. Australian Medical Association position statement on
genetic testing. At:
11. Lea DH, Kaphingst KA, Bowen D, et al. Communicating
genetic and genomic information: health literacy and
numeracy considerations. Public Health Genomics
12. Mills R, Voora D, Peyser B, et al. Delivering pharmacogenetic
testing in a primary care setting. Pharmgenomics Pers Med
13. Van Driest SL, Shi Y, Bowton EA, et al. Clinically actionable
genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive
pharmacogenomic testing. Clin Pharmacol Ther
14. Australian Privacy Act guidelines for the use and disclosure
of genetic evidence. At: https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/
15. Otlowski MFA. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk
relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity
still elusive. Med J Aust 2015; 202 (6): 335–337.
16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium
(CPIC). At: www.pharmgkb.org/page/cpic
17. Haga SB, Kawamoto K, Agans R, et al. Consideration of
patient preferences and challenges in storage and access of
pharmacogenetic test results. Genet Med 2011;13:887–890.
18. Verbeurgt P, Mamiya T, Oesterheld J. How common are
drug and gene interactions? Prevalence in a sample of 1143
patients with CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotyping.
Pharmacogenomics (2014) 15(5), 655–665.
19. Welch BM, Eilbeck K, Del Fiol G, et al. Technical desiderata
for the integration of genomic data with clinical decision
support. J Biomed Informatics 2014;51:3–7 .
20. Tuteja S, Haynes K, Zayac C. Community pharmacists’
attitudes towards clinical utility and ethical implications of
pharmacogenetic testing. Personal Med 2013;10:793–800 .
21. Alexander KM, Divine HS, Hanna CR, et al. Implementation of
personalized medicine services in community pharmacies:
perceptions of independent community pharmacists. J Am
Pharm Assoc 2014;54:510–7 .
22. Doucette WR, McDonough RP, Klepser D, et al.
Comprehensive medication therapy management:
identifying and resolving drug-related issues in a community
pharmacy. Clin Ther 2005;27:1104–11.
23. Perera PN, Guy MC, Sweaney AM, et al. Evaluation of
prescriber responses to pharmacist recommendations
communicated by fax in a medication therapy management
program (MTMP). J Manag Care Pharm 2011;17:345–54.
24. Stanek EJ, Sanders CL, Taber KA, et al. Adoption of
pharmacogenomic testing by US physicians: results of a
nationwide survey. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012;91:450–8 .
1. With regard to the core components
of a genetic-testing service,
pharmacists are likely to contribute
a) Providing customers with information
about the service.
b) Performing and interpreting the genetic
c) Providing customers with advice on
results and follow-up services.
2. Which of the following genetic tests
cannot currently be purchased by
d) Pharmacogenetic Screen.
3. In Australia, which businesses
currently generate reports from
individual genetic test data?
a) Sonic Genetics.
c) Chemmart pharmacies.
4. Staff training and education will be
a) Ensuring customers and prescribers do
not have inappropriate expectations.
b) Understanding privacy laws regarding
c) Explaining test results to customers and
d) All the above.
as 80% or more of American and
Australian pharmacists consider
their pharmacogenomic knowledge
poor, and similar or even greater
proportions feel unqualified to provide
pharmacogenomic testing due to lack of
confidence in counselling and making
recommendations to doctors.
a study of 291 Victorian pharmacists,
78% rated their pharmacogenomic
knowledge as 5 or less on a 1-to-10
scale, and only 6% believed they would
counsel patients well.6
Most pharmacists are also unlikely
to be knowledgeable about relevant
legislation, guidelines and evidence-
based clinical recommendations. Similar
considerations apply for prescribers. To
achieve full therapeutic benefits from
services, prescribers must be sufficiently
knowledgeable in these areas to
make informed decisions about
pharmacist recommendations. Rates
of prescriber acceptance of pharmacist
recommendations are reported to be
Low acceptance in
situations where pharmacogenomics
recommendations have a strong
evidence base may in part reflect poor
Delivery of simple gene-testing
services is straightforward and can
be implemented without extensive
knowledge of pharmacogenomics or
personalised, patient-centred ‘precision’
health care. However pharmacies
looking to transition successfully into
these new areas of health care should
encourage and support staff to develop
knowledge in these fields.
Staff training is likely to be the biggest
factor affecting the long-term success
of Australian pharmacies transitioning
into delivery of personalised healthcare
Useful information sources
Australian Medical Association position
statement on genetic testing 2012. At:
1. Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) Working Group Report
to the Advisory Committee to the Director, NIH 2015. The
Precision Medicine Initiative cohort program - building a
research foundation for 21st century medicine. At:
3. Dunnenberger HM, Crews KR, Hoffman JM, et al.
Preemptive clinical pharmacogenetics implementation:
Current programs in five US medical centers. Annu Rev
Pharmacol Toxicol 2015;55:89–106.
4. 23andMe gene test. At: www.23andme.com/en-gb/health/
5. myDNA gene test. At: www.mydna.life
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