Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist November 2015 Contents Australian Pharmacist November 2015 I ©Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
COUNSELLING IN PRACTICE
1. Heart Foundation of Australia. Improving cardiovascular
adherence: a toolkit for health professionals; 2011. At:
2. Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication. N Eng J
3. Sokol M, McGuigan KA, Verbrugge RR, et al. Impact
of medication adherence on hospitalization risk and
healthcare cost. Med Care 2005;43(6):521–30 .
4. Muszbek N, Brixner D, Benedict A, et al. The economic
consequences of noncompliance in cardiovascular disease
and related conditions: a literature review. Int J Clin Pract
5. Horwitz RI, Viscoli CM, Berkman L, et al. Treatment
adherence and risk of death after a myocardial infarction.
6. Simons LA, Simons J, McManus P, et al. Discontinuation
rates for use of statins are high. BMJ 2000;321(7268):1084.
7. Ho PM, Bryson CL, Rumsfield JS. Medication adherence:
its importance in cardiovascular outcomes. Circulation
8. World Health Organisation. Adherence to long-
term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva,
Switzerland: WHO; 2003. At: http://apps.who.int/iris/
9. Cardiovascular Expert Group. Cardiovascular, version 6.
Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines; 2012.
10. National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance (NVDPA).
Australian absolute cardiovascular disease risk calculator.
2012. At: www.cvdcheck.org.au
11. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Professional practice
standards. Version 4. Canberra: PSA; 2010.
12. National Council on Patient Information and Education.
Medication Use Safety Training (MUST) for Seniors
factsheet: MUST remember – 10 tips to help remind
you to stay on schedule; 2011. At: www.mustforseniors.
1. The term adherence is the preferred
term for medicine-taking behaviour
as it describes which ONE of the
a) How long patients continue to take
their prescribed medicines.
b) The extent to which a patient’s
actual history of drug administration
corresponds with the prescribed
c) The timing, dosage and frequency of
d) A relationship in which patients
collaborate in shared decision-making
with their prescriber.
e) A paternalistic orientation whereby the
prescriber makes orders and the patient
2. Which ONE of the following is NOT
asked of the PSA Professional practice
standards Appendix 4 – Adherence
Assessment Tool used to measure a
patient’s medicine-taking behaviour?
a) Do you ever forget to take your
b) Do you always take your medicines as
c) Are you always careful about taking
d) When you feel better do you sometimes
stop taking your medicines?
e) Sometimes, if you feel worse when you
take your medicines, do you stop taking
3. Which ONE of the following is NOT
a recognised risk factor for non-
a) Complex regimens including multiple
b) Long duration of treatment.
c) Presence of immediate beneficial
d) Previous treatment failure.
e) Frequent changes in treatment.
4. Which of the following is a practical
measure to help improve a patient’s
a) Set up an alarm on the mobile phone.
b) Enlist a family member’s support.
c) Keeping a diary or calendar.
d) Combine medicine-taking with a
regular daily task.
e) All of the above.
5. Which ONE of the following
statements is TRUE regarding the
Australian absolute cardiovascular
disease risk calculator?
a) It determines a patient’s absolute risk
of cardiovascular disease (including all
heart, stroke and blood vessel diseases)
in the next ten years by taking into
account risk factors for cardiovascular
b) It presents risk as a numerical probability
and the risk should be calculated on a
daily basis by patients.
c) The calculator allows a health
professional to explain to a patient
that a reduction in blood pressure, or
cholesterol brought about by adhering
to prescribed therapy, can have a
significant impact on their overall
d) It is a printable colour chart which can
be used as a tool to promote adherence.
e) It takes into account the number of
medicines a patient is taking and how
adherent they are to those medicines.
Mrs Martin’s medicines
Using the Adherence Assessment Tool
from the PSA Professional practice
standards, you are able to quickly and
easily identify that Mrs Martin often
forgets to take her medicines, especially
when she feels ‘better’. You discuss
the importance of the medicines to
Mrs Martin and are able to allay her fears
of experiencing side effects. Mrs Martin
tells you that she now understands
that she needs to take her medicines,
including her statin, even though she
may not ‘feel’ better from taking them.
You offer several suggestions to help her
remember her medicines and she agrees
that she is going to store her medicines
in a safe place on the kitchen counter,
rather than keep them tucked away out
of sight. Mrs Martin thanks you for your
help and tells you that she will drop into
the pharmacy in a few weeks to let you
know how she is going.
Adherence refers to the extent to
which a person’s medicine-taking
behaviour corresponds with agreed
recommendations from a healthcare
provider and is linked to lower overall
health costs, lower hospitalisations and
better health outcomes.
Several tools are available for use
by pharmacists to both identify
non-adherence, as well as to promote
adherence in our patients.
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