Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist February 2015 Contents Australian Pharmacist February 2015 I ©Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
CPAP machines can be costly and for
some patients financial assistance may
be available under various schemes.
For example the Essential Medical
Equipment Scheme offers assistance
to Concession and DVA card holders
when CPAP has been deemed a required
treatment by a medical practitioner.
Many CPAP suppliers also rent out
machines and/or masks to allow
the patient to trial devices before
Currently a set of best practice
guidelines are being prepared by the
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia and
will be disseminated to the profession
in 2015. Once available, these will allow
pharmacies providing sleep apnoea
services (including CPAP devices) to
benchmark their service provision.
1. Giles TL, Lasserson TJ, Smith B, et al. Continuous positive
airways pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3.
Art. No.: CD001106. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001106.
2. Mansfield D, Antic N, McEvoy D. How to assess, diagnose,
refer and treat adult obstructive sleep apnoea: a
commentary on the choices. MJA 2013;199(8):21–6 .
3. Wu H, Yuan X, Zhan X et al. A review of EPAP nasal device
therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep
Breath 2014;[Epub ahead of print] At: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
4. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J et al. The occurrence of sleep-
disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. NEJM
5. Adams RJ, Piantadosi C, Appleton SL et al. Investigating
obstructive sleep apnoea: will the health system have the
capacity to cope? A population study. Aust Health Rev
6. Deloitte Access Economics. Re-awakening Australia:
the economic cost of sleep disorders in Australia; 2010.
7. Eckert DJ, Malhotra A. Pathophysiology of adult
obstructive sleep apnea. Proceedings of the American
Thoracic Society 2008;5(2):144–53.
8. Sullivan CE, Issa FG, Berthon-Jones M et al. Reversal
of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive
airway pressure applied through the nares. Lancet
9. Weaver TE, Calik MW, Farabi SS et al. Innovative treatments
for adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Nat Sci Sleep
10. Chai-Coetzer CL, Pathinathan A, Smith BJ. Continuous
positive airway pressure delivery interfaces for obstructive
sleep apnoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005308. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.
11. Jordan AS, McSharry DG, Malhotra A. Adult obstructive
sleep apnoea. Lancet 2014;383(9918):736–47.
12. Abad VC, Guilleminault C. Treatment options for
obstructive sleep apnea. Curr Treatment Options Neurol
13. Smith I, Lasserson TJ. Pressure modification for improving
usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines in
adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. Cochrane Database
of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003531.
14. Wozniak DR, Lasserson TJ, Smith I. Educational, supportive
and behavioural interventions to improve usage of
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15. Hanes CA, Wong KK, Saini B. An overview of service quality
16. positive airway pressure services in Australian pharmacies.
17. Shoukry G, Wong K, Bartlett D, Saini B. Treatment
experience of people with
18. obstructive sleep apnoea seeking continuous positive
airways pressure device provision through community
pharmacies: a role for pharmacists? Int J Pharm Pract
19. Australian Government Department of Human Services.
Essential medical equipment payment. 2014. At: www.
1. The main effect of continuous
positive airways pressure (CPAP)
treatment for obstructive sleep
apnoea (OSA) is to:
a) Supply oxygen at pressure that prevents
b) Supply oxygen at pressure that prevents
c) Supply a continuous flow of air to
prevent the upper airway from closing
because of movement.
d) Supply air at a pressure that prevents
upper airway collapse by acting as a
2. Which of the following statements
about CPAP is TRUE?
a) CPAP is the treatment of choice for
all patients with OSA, and all patients
suspected of OSA must be offered a trial.
b) All patients with OSA should be offered
an auto-titrating CPAP device.
c) CPAP has been shown to be effective in
cases of moderate-to-severe OSA.
d) CPAP use can assist weight loss, blood
glucose control, and renal failure.
3. Which of the following statements is
TRUE regarding pressure settings for
a) Most CPAP machines can provide air
pressure between 5–50 cm of H2O.
b) Most CPAP machines can provide air
pressure between 5–20 cm of H2O.
c) Most CPAP machines can provide air
pressure between 50–100 cm of H2O.
d) Most CPAP machines can provide air
pressure between 0–5 cm of H2O.
4. Devices that provide automated
titration of air pressure instead of
continuous fixed pressure are suited
a) Who have variable levels of obstruction/
apnoeas based on sleep position or
b) With central sleep apnoea or congestive
c) Who have COPD or nocturnal
d) With mild asymptomatic OSA.
5. Which of the following statements
is TRUE regarding CPAP interfaces
a) Nasal masks provide the most effective
seal and should be preferred.
b) Masks from one manufacturer can never
be used with a CPAP machine made by
c) Mask fit is important – if the mask
does not create a seal, or is disliked
by the patient, treatment efficacy is
d) Most patients require the same kind of
mask, there is often no need to stock
masks from different manufacturers.
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