Home' Australian Pharmacist : Australian Pharmacist September 2014 Contents Australian Pharmacist September 2014 I © Pharmaceutical Society of Australia Ltd.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SOLUTIONS THROUGH COMPOUNDING
1. Preservatives added to products for
topical delivery are required to:
a) Inhibit the growth of moulds and
bacteria to increase spoilage.
b) Be irritant or possess sensitising
c) Partition into the water phase in
sufficient concentration to effectively
preserve the product.
d) Be oil soluble.
e) Be included in those products which
contain no water.
2. The principles of Hurdle technology
can be summarised as follows:
a) GMP adherence is not a current
b) Wide neck jars are an appropriate
c) Oil in water (o/w) emulsions are
d) Increasing the water content is a
e) Use of multiple ingredients with
antimicrobials properties, such as
alcohols, essential oils, extracts and
surfactants eliminates the need for
3. The consistency of Wool alcohols
ointment APF may be increased
to a thicker viscosity in order for
use in hot and humid climates by
increasing the amount of:
a) Wool alcohols.
b) Hard paraffin.
c) White soft paraffin.
d) Liquid paraffin.
e) Yellow soft paraffin.
4. The amount of wool fat in Simple
ointment white APF is:
c) 500 mg/100g.
d) 5000 mcg/100g.
e) 0.5% w/w.
5. NataCream which can be used
as a cream or as a base for other
a) Contains mineral oil and propylene glycol.
b) Has low stability in the presence of
c) Is hyperallergenic and non-
d) Has intrinsic hydrating properties,
and can be used synergistically with
conventional hydrating agents.
e) Is preserved with compound hydroxyl
• applying an emollient immediately
after bathing – the emollient may
need to be applied twice daily for very
• using soap and shampoo substitutes.
Aggravating factors that should be
avoided include: overheating (avoid
electric blankets, turn down heaters in
winter, and use fans and air conditioners
in summer), dryness (central ducted
heating causes drying), contact with
irritants, infections and allergies, and
avoid scratching (relieve itching by
patting/pressing the skin and cooling
with water, followed by application of
Directions for use
• Apply the topical product to the
affected area as directed by the
prescriber or pharmacist.
• Do not use sunscreens, cosmetics,
lotions, moisturisers or insect
repellents, where you apply
• Consult your doctor or pharmacist if
the condition gets worse.
• Avoid contact with eyes, nose, mouth
and other sensitive areas.
• Wash your hands after application
(unless your hands are the affected area).
• Store the preparation in a cool place
(below 25 °C), protected from light
and away from children and pets.
KEY LEARNING POINTS
• Preservative-free products for topical
delivery are both currently popular
and result in reduced potential for
the occurrence of irritant and allergic
• Pharmacists are able to make
recommendations to patients with
sensitive skin on the selection of
a topical product as in addition to
preservatives, other ingredients such
as fragrances, soaps and surfactants
may also cause contact dermatitis.
• Pharmacists are able to prepare a
product extemporaneously, which
is preservative-free and as such
devoid of substances classified as
preservatives or self-preserving where
traditional preservatives have been
replaced by other ingredients with
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Annex VI, Pg 161 At http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/
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14. Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook. 22nd
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15. NataPres At: www.univar.com/es-MX/US/Industries/~/
16. PSA. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Professional
Practice Standards. Version 4, 2010. Standard 10:
Compounding. At: http://www.psa.org.au/download/
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